It declined markedly throughout the 19th–20th centuries in much of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, mainly due to direct persecution and "bycatch" from the poisoned carcasses set for livestock predators . In some areas a reduction in available food supplies, arising from changes in livestock management practices, also had an impact . It is very highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development and electrocution has been identified as a threat . Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used for veterinary purposes pose a threat to this species. One case of suspected poisoning caused by flunixin, an NSAID, was recorded in this species in 2012 in Spain. Diclofenac, a similar NSAID, has caused severe declines in Gyps vulture species across Asia.